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1, the development status of foreign net red brokerage company

We're really more into Batman.


Means austere in Arabic. This was the name of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle. It was also borne by a son of Ali, the fourth caliph.

1.1 MCN original intention and its origin With the red hot economy, the word MCN has gradually surfaced, and is highly favored by online redists and investors. The word MCN comes from the YouTube ecosystem. System English is called Multi-channel Network, originally intended for multi-channel network MCN company is a service provider between YouTube and creators (quasi-network red or net red), providing brand marketing, online red collaboration. Content editing, video distribution, fan development, content realization, copyright management and technical support services MCN in China is the form of net red brokerage company, depending on the business is different from seven different types of brokerage companies, such as content IP incubators, live Acting brokers, online retailers, etc. Marketing Technology YouTube MCN The emergence of py MCN is the inevitable trend of YouTube development. Since its inception in 2008, it has been developing for nearly 9 years. YouTube was founded in 2005 and is the largest in the world. The video site, so far, has more than 1 billion users worldwide, playing hundreds of millions of hours each day. The user uploads up to 100 hours of video per minute, meaning that it takes four days for the user to finish. These uploaded videos are called creators (net red or quasi-net red), and each creator can open their own channel. Let users pay attention before they can see the contents of this channel.



Derived from the Old English name Ælfræd, composed of the elements ælf elf and ræd counsel. Alfred the Great was a 9th-century king of Wessex who fought unceasingly against the Danes living in northeast England. He was also a scholar, and he translated many Latin books into Old English. His fame helped to ensure the usage of this name even after the Norman conquest, when most Old English names were replaced by Norman ones. It became rare by the end of the Middle Ages, but was revived in the 18th century. A famous bearer was the British poet Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-1892).

YouTube becomes Creator channel integrator. Due to the large number of creators, the number of channels has already exceeded 5 million. If YouTube official manages all the channels by oneself, the workload is huge and the management is very difficult and unrealistic. At the same time, most creators will only do the content, obtain traffic, realize cash flow, etc. There is no economic interest, so it needs the help of a third-party company. At this time, the market logic generated by MCN and generated for the service provider MCN between Internet Red and YouTube lies in its online red and video platforms (such as the video platform YouTube. , Seconds, etc.) served as a bridge between them.

But this guy is really into Red Skull, the supervillain from Captain America。


Latinized form of the Greek name Αλεξανδρος (Alexandros), which meant defending men from Greek αλεξω (alexo) to defend, help and ανηρ (aner) "man" (genitive ανδρος). In Greek mythology this was another name of the hero Paris, and it also belongs to several characters in the New Testament. However, the most famous bearer was Alexander the Great, King of Macedon. In the 4th century BC he built a huge empire out of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and parts of India. Due to his fame, and later medieval tales involving him, use of his name spread throughout Europe.

The name has been used by kings of Scotland, Poland and Yugoslavia, emperors of Russia, and eight popes. Other notable bearers include English poet Alexander Pope (1688-1744), American statesman Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804), Scottish-Canadian explorer Sir Alexander MacKenzie (1764-1820), Russian poet Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837), and Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), the Scottish-Canadian-American inventor of the telephone.

The benefits of MCN to NetRed: 1) Increase advertising revenue, MCN gathers a large number of creators, and has stronger bargaining power with platform or brand merchants, so as to obtain a higher advertising unit price. 2) Get traffic or resources to support MCN and platform for in-depth cooperation, act as a distributor role, easier to obtain platform support, such as recommended hot spots, platform activity opportunities, etc. 3) Broaden the means of realization. There is more than just the advertising share of the video platform. MCN can also help NetRed to earn more profits through branding, product trials, product sales, etc. 4) Facilitate content copyright management. MCN can help NetRed distribute content on major video platforms. Red gradually builds its own IP.

不过有人却偏偏痴迷于《美国队长》(Captain America)里的大反派红骷髅(Red Skull)。


Means lofty, sublime in Arabic. Ali was a cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad and the fourth caliph to rule the Muslim world. His followers were the original Shia Muslims, who regard him as the first rightful caliph.

This name is borne by the hero in 'Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves', the tale of a man who finds the treasure trove of a band of thieves. Another famous bearer was the boxer Muhammad Ali (1942-2016), who changed his name from Cassius Clay upon his conversion to Islam.

2。The benefits of MCN to the video platform: 1) Reduce the management troubles, and the video platform does not have to face a large number of small creators, thereby reducing the input and risk of content management. 2) Facilitate content quality and quantity control, video platform can cooperate with MCN to promote the production of high-quality content, or motivate creators to generate more content 1.2 MCN's profit model MCN Company has played its unique role between NetRed and the platform. The value of the company has also slowly found its own profit model. The main income of foreign MCN companies comes from the following three methods: 1) Channel broker advertising The network red channel of MCN company's agent broadcasts video platform advertising, the platform will be based on advertising revenue ( Such as CPM) share to MCN company according to certain proportion. This income is again made by MCN

As the Daily Mail reports, 37-year-old Henry Damon of Caracas, Venezuela has undergone several procedures, including cutting off a part of his nose, to make himself look like the villain Red Skull from the popular comic book。


Means son of Anders 郎/公子/少爺.

3。The company and Net Red are allocated according to the agreed ratio, and Net Red accounts for its bargaining power. In addition, MCN companies can find brands to collaborate, and they can be implanted from 50% to 90% depending on the frequency of the brand marketing. 2) Customized Content Costs MCN can help WebRed to find video customization opportunities, including customizing the brand or customizing it to Taiwan to earn customized fees. The platform will also fund MCN companies or channels to produce quality content. For example, Google once funded the channel on YouTube in 2012. This year's beats and today’s headlines have invested RMB 1 billion to support content creators. 3) IP sales and value-added services The MCN platform provides agent IP channels with value-added services such as copyright IP sales, peripheral product development and sales, and obtains royalty from them. 1.3 Typical Foreign MCNs and Their Presentations There are a total of 174 MCN companies certified by YouTube worldwide, of which the largest number is Europe, followed by North America, and again Asia and the Pacific. Due to the reason that YouTube was blocked in mainland China, China is outside of YouTube's ecology. There is not a single Chinese company that appears on the YouTube Certified MCN List. The only Chinese-language company that makes coffee is from Taiwan. Among the many MCN companies, Maker Studios. Broadband TV) Fullscreen and Studio71 are the top four comprehensive content manufacturers on YouTube. However, the most talked-about example is Maker Studios. In 2014, Disney bought a Maker Studio with about 400 million subscribers at a valuation of US$1 billion. This move is considered to be the MCN content manufacturer model in the industry. Great success. The largest MCN company Maker Studio has 55,000 channels and receives 5.5 billion views per month. The programs include "Epic Rap Battles of History", "The Getup", "Pew Die Pie", etc. It owns multiple vertical programs including games. With sports life and trends, beauty entertainment, etc.

据英国《每日邮报》报道,现年37岁的亨利·戴蒙(Henry Damon)来自委内瑞拉首都加拉加斯。为了让自己看起来更像动漫人物红骷髅,他已经接受了好几次整容手术,甚至割下了自己鼻子的一部分。


English form of the Greek name Ανδρεας (Andreas), which was derived from ανδρειος (andreios) manly, masculine/ 漢子/男人, a derivative of ανηρ (aner) man. In the New Testament the apostle Andrew, the first disciple to join Jesus, is the brother of Simon Peter. According to tradition, he later preached in the Black Sea region, with some legends saying he was crucified on an X-shaped cross. Andrew, being a Greek name, was probably only a nickname or a translation of his real Hebrew name, which is not known.

This name has been common (in various spellings) throughout the Christian world, and it became very popular in the Middle Ages. Saint Andrew is regarded as the patron of Scotland, Russia, Greece and Romania. The name has been borne by three kings of Hungary, American president Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), and, more recently, English composer Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948-).

4。MCN in the vertical field of Taiwan MCN With the maturity of MCN, more vertical MCNs have emerged so far and can focus on creating and managing good content. For example, Awesomeness TV focuses on children-related content; Machinima focuses on games; StyleHaul focuses on fashion, beauty and lifestyle; Tastemade focuses on food, travel; DanceOn focuses on dance and music-related fields; Whistle Sports focuses on sports-related fields; Mitu Networks focuses on the Latino and post-Zero communities. In addition, some MCN companies began to gradually reduce their dependence on the Internet for greater development. For example AwesomenessTV. Fullscreen started to produce content for TV stations and online paid subscription channels; Fullscreen developed a self-built mobile player client D abroad in addition to YouTube, NetMonkey and Facebook. Instagram. Twitter, Vine, etc., MCN companies need to help WebRed to distribute content and maintain platform accounts and fans. With regard to how MCN manages Internet Red, South Korea’s MCN company has done a good job. There are many things worth learning from. 1.4  , is the largest MCN company in Korea, and it is also a net red brokerage company. The total population of South Korea is 50 million, and half of them are subscribers of Treasure Hunter. The company was founded in January 2015 and has so far received 3 rounds of financing, and each round of financing of not less than 3 million US dollars is one of the fastest growing MCN companies in Korea. The company has acquired more than 220 net reds in just two years. Among them, there is no shortage of online red, which is currently the most popular in South Korea, especially in the subdivided areas of games, entertainment, beauty, food, sports, etc., creating a number of the top net red and brokers.

Damon has already had several subdermal implants on his forehead as well as several facial tattoos。


Derived from the Greek elements αρχος (archos) "master" and μηδομαι (medomai) "to think, to plan". This was the name of a 3rd-century BC Greek mathematician, astronomer and inventor.

5。Treasure Hunter has formed a business model of "net red rating training professional management production diversified liquidation methods" and has achieved great success. This success and the founding team are not unrelated to the senior background of the entertainment media industry. Its founder Song Zailong is a former manager of South Korea's giant entertainment media group CJ AM, claiming that “South Korea's first online broker” s Treasure Hunter is absorbing E&traditions. After the essence of the entertainment brokerage company, through experiments and adjustments, a set of one-stop online red incubation, training, operation, and cashing models was developed. Treasure Hunter's online red training feature is graded training, and the company provides three phases of training. From basic knowledge, video skills to long-term strategic planning will involve, for example, introducing the entire net red industry situation, training design, shooting, editing, program production, promotion and other preparation skills. And how can we make the best content creator? 0 Treasure Hunter has two main aspects for NET Red Hatchery: one is to enhance personal image and personal charisma, the other is to plan content creation and production of Fine Ifo. After the completion of Net Red Hatchery, exporting through Treasure Hunter's multi-channel network to other collaborative platforms, NetRed is often a big difficulty in NetRed brokerage, and Treasure Hunter has developed a set of effective methods to manage NetRed. Its core is designed to bring value-added to NetRed, and it adopts a value-based sorting and hierarchical management model for contracted network red. Treasure Hunter divides Redundan into three stages: primary, intermediate and advanced, using different training and resources. Such as graded teaching materials and professional equipment and site use. The company is generally in accordance with the three-year contract and net red to sign the contract, in the management network red mode, the "team" system to manage the formation of 34 "cohesion, according to the net red output content classification, such as games, the United States In addition to food, sports, etc., the distributors will be allocated according to the number of red nets, and at the same time, there will be a “big and small” cultivation method, a big red net with a small net red, and a net red push and mutual support. Accelerate growth and become reddening, among which, video mutual promotion is currently the most important way for South Korean Red Fans to grow. Therefore, Net Red is very much in recognition of the professional services provided by Treasure Hunter, so it is less likely that domestic malicious encroachment will happen. The red cash-out method is very mature, but it is combined with the content. The main ones are: 1) Brand advertising


、Ariana/Arianna/Αριαδνη (Ancient Greek)

Meaning & History
Means "most holy" , composed of the Cretan Greek elements αρι (ari) most and αδνος (adnos) holy. In Greek mythology, Ariadne was the daughter of King Minos. She fell in love with Theseus and helped him to escape the Labyrinth and the Minotaur, but was later abandoned by him. Eventually she married the god Dionysus.

6。Net Red distributes its products based on its own characteristics, such as live broadcast, video or graphic, according to the demands of advertisers. 2) The products embedded in the red video of the product are often embedded in the products of the brand merchants. Makeup recommended a lipstick or eye shadow; 3) Derivative products derived in the production of some products, such as Pucca's peripherals, apparel, digital products. Audio and video culture, daily necessities, etc.; 4) Personal branding upgrades individual IPs and establishes their own brands, such as Pony Park Min-il’s launch of its own cosmetics brand Pony Effect, etc., and then maximizes the value of personal IP through product sales. This model can be a great success, but often the head net red can enjoy the dividends brought by the branding. In contrast, China Internet Red is more abundant, in addition to the above four methods, there are other ways of realizing, such as Weibo or WeChat from the media advertising, forwarding, e-commerce or participate in offline activities, etc. What are the differences in China? 1) When Treasure Hunter selects NET Red, it will not require it to have a fan quantity. If it meets the company's requirements, it can directly start training from Amateur. This slightly better point-of-sale broker often requires a certain number of fans, such as 100,000 fans. the above. 2) The contract spirit between Korea Netcom and the brokerage company is very good, and it will not be “running away” and this is relatively poor in China, undoubtedly bringing even greater risks to China Netcom's brokerage company. 3) The division of Korean companies with Netcom More detailed and better cooperation, but Chinese companies have more advantages in the realization of e-commerce and better development. 4) Different from China Net Red, which draws on personal charisma, the most accurate identity of Korean Net Red is content producers. Their vitality in social media is more lasting. The operation and management of South Korea’s MCN company is very systematic, and it has introduced a mature artist training and management system, so that they have a strong ability to produce high-quality content and have a high degree of cooperation with MCN companies, which is worth learning. However, the Chinese market is huge, and the online red market has just started.

His end goal is to get silicone implants on his cheekbones, chin and cheeks and then tattoo his face red to complete the look。


From an English surname which was originally derived from place names meaning "ash tree clearing", from a combination of Old English æsc and leah. Until the 1960s it was more commonly given to boys in the United States, but it is now most often used on girls.

7,The type MCN is a welcome word for China to come to China, but it is very embarrassing because the YouTube video platform created by MCN was blocked in the Chinese mainland market. There are a large number of Chinese video platforms Tencent mobile video APP platform, regardless of the original intention of the MCN, as long as the company related to net red go in sets, plus this hat suddenly felt people tall, in fact it is equivalent to net red brokerage company. platform! Fashion, Beauty, Skincare, Education, Laugh, Sports, Gourmet, g3. Hule News, sa content IT, finance, automotive, psychology, home. Live, create music, although the development process of the two red China's net red brokerage company is short but develops rapidly, has created different forms of net red brokerage companies in different platforms, such as the anchor MCN produced on the live broadcast platform, such as the US Air, the US wrist in the cherry , Hua Yi and the banana plan, etc.; produced video MCN on the video platform. Such as magic power Tv, Wanhe Tianyi, one, two more, etc.; in the e-commerce platform has generated electricity supplier MCN. Such as Ruhan Han, Mo Fan, Sui Su, Mrs. Qian, etc.; in the microblogging and WeChat and other social media produced from the media MCN, today's rankings, Duanzi brokerage companies. At the same time, according to different content types. Such as fashion, beauty makeup, maternal and child, games, sports, automobiles, tourism, finance, etc., it has also created MCN companies in the vertical field, such as the beauty that concentrates on the beauty and fashion, and the baby who concentrates on the mother and baby.



Means dawn 晨/辰/黎明 in Latin. Aurora was the Roman goddess of the morning. It has occasionally been used as a given name since the Renaissance.

8。2.2 Video Brokers Build IP Most Powerful Nets The creation of Red IP relies on NetRed's long-term continuous output of high-quality content. The dissemination of these content has helped spread the influence of NetRed, attracting more fans and making the Web more red. Content forms include text, graphic, audio, video, and live broadcast. The more content that can be carried in the later forms, the higher the content richness. Since the live broadcast needs to guarantee real-time performance, the screen cannot be intensively culled and the video is post-edited. Ordinary scenes can be upgraded to perfection by means of late special effects. In 2016, papi sauce quickly grew from a passer-by to China's first online red. She was able to see the potential of video with the power of the original short-lived video and the new media or content production company. Different segmented people needed different heights. Quality content consumption. Especially with the development of mobile internet. People’s demand for short-term video is getting more and more prosperous, so a large number of companies focused on video content production have been born. 0. They start from making good content, make the content into programs or series, let the content itself become IP, and Qualcomm red starred in the content, so that as the content more and more fire. Red net is also getting hotter and harder, so it has become a net red IP. This model has been favored by users. It has created a number of excellent video brokerage companies, including two types, one is an intermediary type, such as the Mars culture and Feibo co-creation; the other is a content type, such as magic TV, One, two more, ten thousand and ten days, runaway comics, He Xianfu, etc. 0 Mars Cultural Support Content Distribution Mars Culture was established in August 2014, the company focused on the new media video content industry, to help the content production team to solve the issue and commercial cash, etc. Problems, core business mainly includes distribution, advertising marketing, investment in three parts. Mars culture's channel resources have reached 110, including video sites (iqiyi, Youku potatoes and other mainstream video sites), short video platforms (seconds, etc.), OTT (Internet and smart TV) partners, IPTV, outdoor platforms and overseas market. Now Mars culture has provided service to more than 400 content providers, including "Big Run Incident," "Uncle Tong Dao," "Military and Military Subsidiary Plane," and "Kai-Ya-Eight Growth Association," with a monthly performance of nearly 10%. Billion. Magic TV becomes one of the largest MCN platforms in China

Emilio Gonzalez, Damon's surgeon, said the huge comic book fan is perfectly healthy。


From the Late Latin name Benedictus which meant blessed. Saint Benedict was an Italian monk who founded the Benedictines in the 6th century. After his time the name was common among Christians, being used by 16 popes. In England it did not come into use until the 12th century, at which point it became very popular. This name was also borne by the American defector Benedict Arnold (1741-1801).

9。Relying on the community of filmmakers in the new studio, they continue to discover quality creators and incubate original content. TV is the MCN brand under the new studio. The short video content brand matrix and the ecosystem "it's magic TV" have a short video content matrix system that possesses magical food. ,Magic Fashion,Magic IP-,Creation Set,Screaming and Tear-resistant Men and Women,Small Love Letters,Dining and Tightening,Dong Xinxuan,Tiny Micro,etc. Traveled over 100 content brands, on Sina Weibo,Secure,Beauty,Today's headlines The platform has more than 200 million fans and the country has more than 8 billion videos. And has become one of the largest MCN institutions in China. The papi sauce to complete the conversion of personal IP to video MCN papitube is an open platform made by papi sauce, aiming to gather more personal creators. Together to create more "creative, interesting, positive energy" content. Why does PAPI sauce upgrade its personal IP to MCN when it is in full swing? On the one hand, it is difficult for individual creators to continuously output high-quality content. This model is not capable of resisting risks. Individuals in papi sauce cannot support the continuous development of the entire company and are not conducive to financing. On the other hand, the number of personal creators produces limited content, and it is easy. To the ceiling, if you use the experience of a single IP, copy or incubate new IP, you can overcome the bottleneck of growth and make a large-scale effect. Papitube is mainly engaged in the development and incubation of short videos. Since it was announced in April 2016, it will start in April of this year for exactly one year. It has signed nearly 30 short video creators, and has hatched four net red fans with millions of fans. There are 1.34 million fans, Yang Shuhui has 940,000 fans, Lori has more than 1.15 million fans and Chunnan has 1.11 million fans. Among them, Meidou love kitchen has got Tencent's angel round of financing. The papi sauce of papi sauce enlightens the direction of individual IP towards MCN development, and also demonstrates the charm of short video creator matrix, each creator may be the next Papi 2.3 live brokerage company is a net red hatching through train with 2016 The outbreak of the Live Application (APP) has become a common way for people to live on the Internet. Although the PC era produced giant live platforms such as YY and Liujianfang, the live broadcast exceeded

戴蒙的整容医生埃米利奥·冈萨雷斯(Emilio Gonzalez)表示,这位狂热的动漫迷是个完全健全的人。


Medieval form of BENEDICT. This was the more common spelling in England until the 18th century. Modern use of the name is probably also influenced by the common surname Bennett, itself a derivative of the medieval name.

10。Really accepted by the public and become a normal life last year. The outbreak of mobile live broadcasting has a close relationship with the maturity of smart phones, mobile traffic and China Mobile's three infrastructures: mobile live broadcast can be broadcast live anytime anywhere. Everyone can participate in the live broadcast. The threshold of the live broadcast suddenly becomes very low, and the live business model (playing or buying) is very clear. As a result, hundreds of live broadcasts of APP platforms have emerged overnight as a group-buying battle. This has also become a new type of monetization or commercial transformation model on the mobile Internet. The most typical example is the unfamiliarity, where the liquidity is very weak before. After accessing the live broadcast, the income rose sharply. Of course, the stock price doubled and the live broadcast platform presented a blossoming state. It provided the public with a wide variety of live entertainment platforms for the pan-entertainment entertainment, including entertainment show live broadcasts (such as Yingke, YY, etc.), game broadcasts such as "Betta, Tiger teeth, etc.", e-commerce live broadcast (such as Taobao live, Mushroom Street live, etc.), etc. These platforms are in full swing and have produced thousands of professional anchor posts, in order to better To manage these anchors, third-party agencies are required to help the anchors to provide services such as training, development, supervision, and liquidation. This has led to the birth of a large number of live brokerage companies. According to different types of live broadcast platforms, corresponding types of live broadcast brokerage companies have also been correspondingly generated, and some are dedicated to live broadcasts such as "Cherry, etc." and some are dedicated to live games (such as logging, etc.), and some are specialized for electricity. Commercial live broadcasts (such as the U.S. wrists, etc.) of course also have some powerful companies that have made comprehensive brokerage companies with all-round development, such as U.S. Space. Live MCN entertainment show live MCN game live MCN (such as the cherry) (such as logging tired) (such as the United States and the United States) in the long run, the live broadcast platform will be in addition to Weibo's largest net red anchor training base. And there will be more and more people who depend on it for their livelihood. According to Liu Yan, founder of Six Rooms, there will be 10 million professional anchors in the future. Therefore, if you want to do network red, it is a shortcut to start from the anchor.

"Henry, aka Red Skull, is a physically and intellectually healthy person," Gonzalez told the Daily Mail. "He's an excellent son, husband and father, who has an extreme taste for body modification."


From the Hebrew nameבִּנְיָמִין (Binyamin) which means son of the south or son of the right hand. Benjamin in the Old Testament is the twelfth and youngest son of Jacob and the founder of one of the southern tribes of the Hebrews. He was originally named בֶּן־אוֹנִי (Ben-'oniy) meaning "son of my sorrow" by his mother Rachel, who died shortly after childbirth, but it was later changed by his father.

As an English name, Benjamin came into general use after the Protestant Reformation. A famous bearer was Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), an American statesman, inventor, scientist and philosopher.

11。Want to be an anchor, choose a suitable live broadcast brokerage company is the key. As an anchor, we must first recognize our own strengths and weaknesses. For example, an anchor of an entertainment show must have a superior appearance and size, and be able to sing and dance. Game anchors need to have a special passion for the game, have the spirit of exploration, and constantly play new games and upgrades. Improve their own technology; e-commerce anchors require themselves to be able to speak and have a strong ability to sell, allowing users to believe in themselves and thus generate transactions. Even if there are no advantages listed above, it does not matter, as long as there is a skill that you particularly like and specialize in. Even fishing and eating can attract a group of fans. The second is to choose a suitable brokerage company, according to their own advantages and the ideal direction of development, such as want to do e-commerce anchor as much as possible to do the electricity company anchor brokerage company, so that training is more professional, more abundant resources, more conducive to their own growing up very fast. At last. To become a well-known anchor, it is also important to work hard. In the early days of the anchor, especially in the first three months, there was no fan, slow growth, and long daily broadcast time. If there is no support for spiritual strength, it will be difficult to persevere, and an anchor grows at least six months or more. If the anchor wants to be red, it must continue to exercise its own professional skills and continue to output content. In addition to the need for live broadcast of broadcast platforms, it is best to cooperate with Weibo, WeChat public number and other traffic platforms to operate omni-channel and regularly. Producing graphic or video content is very helpful for attracting fans. The “Douzi”, a tripartite subdivision brokerage company, is a term used in cross talk, referring to a section or section of artistic content in a crosstalk work. However, the meaning of the word "Duan Zi" has been extensively extended, such as the development of the cold leg ("connotation segment"), "black leg" (horror story), and "Duan Dingzi" type 0 traceback segment. The words “,” “Ancient and Modern Tan”, “Liao Lin Guang Ji” can be regarded as an ancient sub-set of episodes. The paragraphs of modern significance began to circulate mainly in the private sector. The appearance of the Internet and mobile phones has changed the status of Duan Zi. SMS is the earliest enhancement The way people are connected is using text messages to send messages to the audience.Microblogging, a social platform with good magnification, has made it possible for Duanzi to spread, and may even become a hot topic. Duanzi is loved by users on Weibo, and it constantly encourages writing. People.



Latinized form of Βερενικη (Berenike), the Macedonian form of the Greek name Φερενικη (Pherenike), which meant bringing victory from φερω (phero) "to bring" and νικη (nike) "victory". This name was common among the Ptolemy ruling family of Egypt, a dynasty which was originally from Macedon. It occurs briefly in Acts in the New Testament (in most English Bibles it is spelled Bernice) belonging to a sister of King Herod Agrippa II. As an English name, Berenice came into use after the Protestant Reformation.

12。It is also the child hand. Due to the large number of fans on the Internet, they have gained enough popularity. Therefore, they have also become an important force in the network red: tool skills film and television cartoon comics professional foundation rot travel map two Tucao love words pet tree hole dog blood broke news wood Ming translation handling ˋ weibo stage hand type Chinese professional 9016 They are all under the jurisdiction of the Sanjiazi Handicraft Brokerage Company. They are the Tooth Fairy Culture, the Loushi Culture, and the Gushan Culture. The number of fans has exceeded 300 million. Tooth Fairy was founded by White Pelican in 2013 and is the earliest of the three. Bai Zhen was a drone player from the advertising industry in 2012. Although he was not the best advertising salesman or the best player, he combined the two to become a new business model. That is, he is responsible for taking over the business from the advertisers, sorting out the requirements, and then dispatching them to the sons, which is actually the brokerage business. For what



From the Germanic name Karl, which was derived from a Germanic word meaning man 男人/漢子. However, an alternative theory states that it is derived from the common Germanic element hari meaning army, warrior.

The popularity of the name in continental Europe was due to the fame of Charles the Great (742-814), commonly known as Charlemagne, a king of the Franks who came to rule over most of Europe. It was subsequently borne by several Holy Roman Emperors, as well as kings of France, Spain, Portugal, Sweden and Hungary. The name did not become common in Britain until the 17th century when it was carried by the Stuart king Charles I. It had been introduced into the Stuart royal family by Mary Queen of Scots, who had been raised in France.

13。What will this business establish? In fact, the excerptist is also a content creator, and it is a deep content creation. Therefore, they did not have so much time and energy to communicate with advertisers on demand, and deal with such matters as cooperation, review of contracts, and invoice development. At this time, tooth fairy as a brokerage service provider, signed an exclusive advertising agency with Duan Zizu, all advertisements must be accepted by the tooth fairy, tooth fairy and Duan Zishou are divided into proportional division. The company and the deceased are not in an employment relationship, but sign a contract and cooperate as an agency relationship. This model has become the industry standard in the future. Since the toothpione started the earliest, it almost included all the size of the deceased, including the “little panda”. "Called the Beast Easy Star" "Valley Vernacular" "Dead Elder" "The Apostle" "In the Eight Gods" "The Gossip - I am too cjT", "Qi Hall", "Pretty Little Monster", "The Director Don't Shoot" It's me and so on. The keen sense of business made Whitefish taste the sweetness. Due to strategic issues, the rapid rise of competitors Loushi and Gushan was initiated by Yuan Yu in 2013. Even later than the tooth fairy, Yuan Yu himself was also a draughtsman. Before setting up his own company, he was one of the many members of the Toothmaster's division, because Yuan Yu was a sales employee when he started playing Weibo, so he took his Weibo name as ", Mr. Sales. ". Sensitive and sensitive, Yuan Hao resigned from the real estate industry after seeing the merits of the tooth fairy model, founded the Loushi culture, and successively signed the Uncle 86, "recalling the special vest" - "pretend to be in New York", etc. The well-known Duan Zicheng became the second owner in the industry, Yuan Zhen, who changed the name on the business card to “Family sir,” and from then on, his family's culture began to flourish in the segment brokerage circle. Sales Mr., to Duanzi hand, "Mr. sales" and then to the boss "Family sir" the perfect transformation process. Also in 2013, the third Duanzi brokerage company Gushan culture was born, its founder Weibo name Called “Wind Bell Bomb”, he started playing Weibo in 2012. He is also a defensive player and has accumulated a number of contacts in the sub-circle to help other legions to develop business as a broker. As the tooth fairy and Loushi are relatively early Therefore, when Gushan began signing the contracting stage, only a slightly larger player (from 500,000 fans at the time) had already signed the contract. Gushan took these small accounts, tens of thousands of powder to several hundred thousand minutes Signed up, they also developed a large number of growth potential outside the circle. This open mindedness allowed Gushan to gather thousands of Weibo account wind bombs.



Meaning & History
Means "green shoot" 綠箭 in Greek. This was an epithet of the Greek goddess Demeter. The name is also mentioned by Paul in one of his epistles in the New Testament. As an English name, Chloe has been in use since the Protestant Reformation.

14,At the beginning of Gushan, it took a lot of time and effort to find high-quality content producers, such as Ono's sister learning Tucao. At that time, there were fewer than 70,000 fans and less than 20,000 uncles. On the other hand, they talked about quality content communicators. For example, sad cat mad Schrodinger. Hard work pays off, and many of Gushan's signing accounts come from behind, developing the "Uncle of Companions" (Weibo Fans 12.05 million) "Ono's sister learning Tucao" (Weibo fans 15 million), 21 British newspaper sister" (Weibo Fans 13.82 million), "Nong Tony" (Weibo fans 1.8 million), "Big Brother Wang Zhenhua" (Weibo fans 365 million) "My husband's daily routine" (Weibo fans 9.31 million), Professor 44 Silver" (Wei Bo fans 6.66 million) and other well-known accounts. In 2014, the annual financial flow of Gushan culture exceeded the sum of the two companies, the Tooth Fairy and the Loushi, and came to the top. Gushan Culture has already instigated 50% of the Duanzi on Weibo. If the new Duanzi wants to increase their fans, they must join Gushan Culture, but the condition is that the signing parties must forward each other. In order to encourage the relay between segmented players and achieve a win-win situation, Gushan Culture will support the segmented players in the relaying process based on the number of fans, such as 1 million to 2 million segmented players, 500,000 to 1 million fans. Duanzi hand together, below 500,000 together. In order to rise, Duan Ziyi must produce a quality segment, and then everyone forwards it together to achieve rapid increase in powder, so that he can advance to a higher level. After Gushan Culture consolidates Duan Zishou’s advertising brokerage business, the company extended its business from book publishing to netbook dramas in 2014 and completed upgrades. Now, with the focus of the main business, we have begun to engage in the NET Red Hatchery business and let us play an increasingly important role in the online red industry chain. The Duanzi brokerage company is very Chinese-featured, but the combination of Netcom and E-commerce has also created a new set of gameplay, among which Ruhan is one of the most successful pioneers in this model. 2.5 Cases of typical red e-commerce business in China. For example, in the era of corporate mobile internet and fan-economies, Internet Red was pushed to the forefront. After introducing e-commerce into the e-commerce ecosystem, e-commerce has ushered in an explosive growth in the e-commerce market. In 2016, it was identified as pharynx. Red E-Commerce broke out in the first year. Young, personalized, mobile and socialized become the new e-commerce model.



From the medieval Latin name Christianus meaning a Christian (see CHRISTOS). In England it has been in use since the Middle Ages, during which time it was used by both males and females, but it did not become common until the 17th century. In Denmark the name has been borne by ten kings since the 15th century. A famous bearer was Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875), the Danish author of such fairy tales as 'The Ugly Duckling' and 'The Emperor's New Clothes'.

15。Important features. As one of the most important ways to realize the realization of net red cash, net red electricity business naturally attracts much attention. The formerly unrecognized network red e-commerce company, such as Han, suddenly became a company on the market and was highly sought after by the public. For example, Han Han's previous life was founded by the founder Feng Min in December 2011, and he was previously positioned as the Amoy brand Li Beilin. With the actual experience accumulated by the founding team in the field of women's wear, the store won a double gold crown within two years. The costume model was Zhang Dazhao, who later became the first e-commerce network red. In June 2014, Ruhan and Zhang Dazhao co-founded a “closet wardrobe” Taobao shop: After more than two years of hard work, The sales volume of this store exceeded RMB 300 million, which has become a typical case of the network Red Store.After the net Red Store achieved results, in September 2015, Li Lilin’s team ended the operation of its own store and was completely transformed into a net e-commerce company. Internet Red Hatchery, marketing, operations, supply chain integration, etc. In August, 79, 2016, Ruhan Holdings officially “backdoor” Kerry’s login to the new three editions In November 2016, Alibaba announced investment as a culvert and became the fourth The major shareholder, such as Han, has a valuation of as much as RMB 3.3 billion, and now it includes Zhang Dazhao and Guan Ai’s head net infrared, and also signed one hundred net reds of various types, and has opened more than 50 Taobao stores. Formed a package Many semi-standard products and standard brand matrixes, including clothing and beauty makeup, etc. For example, Feng Hong, the owner of Hanhong, started business as an e-commerce company in 2007 and launched a mail-order business similar to McCawline, but failed. Finally, he went to Taobao in 2011 to create his own brand, Libereen, and he lived in Taobao Liquor from 2011 to 2013. He lived a bitter, but 2014 began to be different. Competition is getting more intense. How to obtain effective traffic has become the core of e-commerce competition. There are two roads ahead of Ruhan, one of which is to increase the delivery of customer channels through trains in Taobao, and the second is to use opinion leaders KOL (Key Opinion). (Leader) from the social network site (especially Weibo) own Taobao shop direct diversion. The first way there is no threshold, in addition to money, but for the small and medium-sized businesses, the money is the biggest threshold. The second way in 2014 Years have begun to emerge.Beautiful said that Mushroom Street brought a lot of precise traffic to Taobao stores between 2010 and 2013. The shopkeepers found that as long as the clothes on the two platforms are beautiful, they have free traffic. And then



From the Late Greek name Χριστοφορος (Christophoros) meaning bearing CHRIST, derived from Χριστος (Christos) combined with φερω (phero) to bear, to carry. Early Christians used it as a metaphorical name, expressing that they carried Christ in their hearts. In the Middle Ages, literal interpretations of the name's etymology led to legends about a Saint Christopher who carried the young Jesus across a river. He has come to be regarded as the patron saint of travellers.

As an English given name, Christopher has been in general use since the 15th century. In Denmark it was borne by three kings (their names are usually spelled Christoffer), including the 15th-century Christopher of Bavaria who also ruled Norway and Sweden. Other famous bearers include Italian explorer Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), English playwright Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), and the fictional character Christopher Robin from A. A. Milne's 'Winnie-the-Pooh' books.

16。With Taobao blocking them, the shopkeepers can only find new ways. The smart shopkeepers who are looking for the flow of traffic have begun to use the microblogging platform to divert Taobao. Such as Sydney and Mrs. Qian are the pioneers of this model. Because students graduated and started their own business, they did not have the money to buy traffic. They shared their clothes on the Weibo, and they found that many people liked them. They not only left messages for them to buy links. Also concerned about their own Weibo. Become a fan and continue to enjoy this "Amway" process. At that time, everyone did not know that this was called Net e-commerce, but it was found that this model diversion was very high on fan loyalty, and the repurchase rate was high. Relative traffic acquisition costs Lowered 4 people began to try different games in online retailers, such as the new flash purchase or pre-sale model. Using a small number of ii models to quickly turn over singles, the sales volume is forecasted based on the pre-heating data during the pre-heating period, which greatly reduces inventory and improves supply chain efficiency. After more than a year of operational testing, Han has found a red e-commerce provider. The model “broker operation supply chain” stopped its own Amoy brand operation and focused on red network business.For example, when Han Feng’s red e-commerce model Feng Min talked about his own model, he once summed it up as “you I am responsible for making money to support my family. This language breaks the relationship between the red e-commerce provider China Red and the e-commerce platform. The e-Red has its own specialty, sharing various fashion and aesthetics on social platforms. Concept output, get more fans, and interact well with fans, then “Amway” own products, let fans buy buy.Net e-commerce platform responsible for the back end of the complex and professional operations, including net red positioning and Packaging, store operations management, product design and development, supply chain management, big data analysis and operations, and company management, etc. If Han builds a social networking platform for traffic, the e-commerce platform This is a complete commercial closed-loop system for transaction and delivery in the supply chain.Net e-commerce is a new type of e-commerce with net red as the core, traditional e-commerce traffic advertising to win, and e-commerce e-commerce through e-commerce With its fan effect, it can quickly obtain accurate traffic and greatly increase the conversion rate.If Han is equipped with a wealth of online red resources, powerful data analysis capabilities and net red pipeline manufacturing capabilities, it can provide e-commerce operations for e-red, and e-broking and Supply chain services help them maximize their business value in the areas of e-commerce realization, advertising agency, and pan-entertainment.



Feminine form of the Late Latin name Clarus which meant clear, bright, famous 清 / 名 /聞. The name Clarus was borne by a few early saints. The feminine form was popularized by the 13th-century Saint Clare of Assisi (called Chiara in Italian), a friend and follower of Saint Francis, who left her wealthy family to found the order of nuns known as the Poor Clares. As an English name it has been in use since the Middle Ages, originally in the form Clare, though the Latinate spelling Clara became more popular in the 19th century.


17。Tonghong builds an e-commerce operation supply chain management network ndian fan incubator blushing after-sales service factory co-developed network red promotional activities quality tearing monitoring marketing promotion digital industry operation fan maintenance art copywriting network red electricity business operation mode such as Han network red incubator The role of culvert, such as after culvert development, has formed a relatively complete network red hatching mechanism. First of all, if Han Han will use data analysis (such as the number of fans, etc.) on the social platform, he can quickly locate the net red he wants to sign. After the signing of the contract, if Han companies will use their own unique "streamline" model to create net red, training net red or potential net red, and then stay behind to continue e and then need to locate and set the net red. Its design from the electricity supplier, advertising endorsement to the game, variety, film and television and other general entertainment marketing program, to quickly increase popularity and number of fans. At the same time, if Han is involved in content planning, marketing promotion, image public relations, fan maintenance, etc. Finally, if it covers the network Taobao Red Taobao shop, for its decoration, operation, customer service management, so that the net red direct realisation e network red electricity supplier advantages and disadvantages network red electricity providers in the last two years new, in addition to the front mentioned As for the optimization of the model, there are many outstanding points worthy of learning in traditional industries. For example: 1) If the gross profit rate of Zhuhan reaches 43.5%, it is very few in the industry. Jingdong and Amazon's gross margin levels are 13.4% and 33.0% respectively; 2) The establishment of a flexible supply chain model has greatly reduced inventory e-pre-sales and big-data analysis forecasts. Predicting sales volume is very accurate, allowing factories to produce according to sales volume, even optimizing production according to fan personality, so as to truly achieve personalized customization. When the stock rate is 15-18%, if Han's annual bad stock ratio is 2-3%, Hanhan has expressed his success in studying Zara.



French masculine and feminine form of CLAUDIUS. In France the masculine name has been common since the Middle Ages due to the 7th-century Saint Claude of Besançon. It was imported to Britain in the 16th century by the aristocratic Hamilton family, who had French connections. A famous bearer of this name was the French impressionist painter Claude Monet (1840-1926).

18。Formula, inventory turns fast and the supply chain responds quickly. The disadvantage of e-commerce is that although it eliminates the cost of purchasing traffic, it takes a lot of money and effort to create and maintain e-commerce. In sales expenses such as e-commerce, advertising costs and service fees for the red man account for the main expenses. There are certain uncertainties in the quality and control of Internet Red, which has become one of the risks for the company's healthy growth: In order to reduce the associated risks, such as the cooperation between Hann and NetRed has various forms, such as different shades of scale. Set up a joint venture with Ruhan to establish a large-scale e-commerce business, such as 51% of Han Holdings, which will bind each other's interests together. If culvert is actually a model of a full industrial chain from net red incubation to electricity supplier operations to a production plant, in Taobao ecology, the traffic is not the shop's own, and finally it is the fight operation. The harder the fight, the harder it is to fight. The more expensive. Net Red has its own fans and comes with traffic. What the fans value is not the price of the product. It is the taste of the red or the living status of the product. This is the reason for the fans to buy it. It is also the red e-commerce and traditional e-commerce. One of the great differences. 2.6 Analysis of the economic effect of online red e-commerce business Red e-commerce business has made important improvements to the industry chain. One of them has shortened the industrial chain, and the second has changed the business model; the third has helped the brand to accurately locate and divert the brand. Traditional A, industrial chain 7-1, battle chain, brand industry chain, 6 1 network, red goods, Chen industry chain, 5


From a Roman family name which was possibly derived from Latin claudus meaning "lame, crippled". This was the name of a patrician family prominent in Roman politics. The ancestor of the family was said to have been a 6th-century BC Sabine leader named Attius Clausus, who adopted the name Appius Claudius upon becoming a Roman citizen. The family produced several Roman emperors of the 1st century, including the emperor known simply as Claudius. He was poisoned by his wife Agrippina in order to bring her son Nero (Claudius's stepson) to power. The name was later borne by several early saints, including a 7th-century bishop of Besançon.

  1. In the traditional brand industrial chain, a total of seven links are required from product design to order production; in the Internet brand industry chain, The brand can be directly contacted to purchase customers without wholesale operations. Reduced 1 link; net red brand industry chain, further remove the warehouse, greatly increased the capital


From a surname which was originally derived from the Old English byname COLA.

19。Operational efficiency. Secondly, in the traditional industrial chain, this is a typical B2C (Business-to-Custom) model. That is, companies do not know how much product sales they have before, and they directly mass produce in advance. The biggest problem with this model is that May cause a lot of inventory. The network red brand industry chain, starting from the customer demand, after the order has been produced, so that almost no inventory, this model is a typical C2B (Customer-to-Business, from customer to business) to customers as Core, shorten intermediate links, reduce costs, provide benefits to customers, and personalize and customize production to achieve flexible supply chain management. The emergence of Internet Red is a huge disruption to marketing, especially brand marketing. In terms of acquiring customers, the advantage of the Net Red brand is even more obvious. Net Red has its own accurate fans on social platforms, and is very appreciative of Net Red and its lifestyle. So when Net Red launches its own brand or product, fans can easily become customers. And these customers have good stickiness and high repurchasing rates, which can greatly reduce brand promotion costs. When traditional 183 or Internet brands operate, they do not know exactly where the fans are. They can only adopt the method of large-scale bombardment of advertisements and use the funneling effect to obtain some accurate users. This method is very wasteful of manpower. At the same time, the re-buying rate is not exactly high. If the brand is established at the initial stage, using Net Red as the brand spokesperson will be more conducive to the healthy development of the brand, because Red Fans will have a high degree of acceptance of the brand and will give more good suggestions. In the benign cycle, continuous improvement will eventually allow the brand to form. His own unique style. With the development of China’s economy, the younger generation will be more individualized, and they will also like the brand's personalized and small-scaledization. The Net Red brand and the C2B model cater to this trend, and it will show tremendous opportunities and broad prospects. . 3. How MCN Companies Help Strengthen IP 3.1 Why Red Should Choose MCN Cooperation In the traditional entertainment industry, the best brokerage companies to do are Rolling Stone International and Emperor Entertainment. Huayi Brothers, Tiancheng Media, etc. These star-making companies have a very complete system of artists to create, from the selection, training, performing arts, publicity, business and other full-service artists.


Old English byname meaning charcoal 黑/碳, originally given to a person with dark features.

20。Compared to the artists, most of the growth of net red is based on their individual business development. After a certain number of fans, net red actively cooperates with net red brokers, or, of course, net red brokers also Your own screening method to directly select acquaintances for training, but this often need to meet certain conditions, such as performing arts net red need to sing, dance expertise, e-commerce network red need good sales ability positioning planning production auditing their own ES direction distribution Investment Realization Operational Marketing Get EER7ES1 Solution Lower Price Cooperation Content Copyright Management Member Blue Promotion Network Red Brokerage Company is a booster for the development of Net Red, and it is the core link of the Net Red Industrial Chain. It has made the Net Red Growth Model “spontaneous” Become a mass production model, so that the net red growth rules. From network red positioning to planning, production, auditing, distribution, marketing, operations, realization and investment, professional MCN companies can provide a lot of help for Net Red. Therefore, it is best to cooperate with Net Red Brokers since : 1) How to quickly learn to become a net red After the net red brokerage company recruits quasi-network red, it will undergo rigorous training, teaching nets to dress up from the outside, talent shows, use of the platform, photography retouching, video production or live broadcast. Fan interaction and other techniques. If NetRed explores these basic methods by itself, it wastes a lot of time and does not necessarily have a good effect. 2) Get promotion and traffic support. Red brokerage companies generally push supportive red nets so that they can grow quickly.


Means chief 首/主/總/中 in Irish Gaelic.


Latinized form of KORE maiden. It was not used as a given name in the English-speaking world until after it was employed by James Fenimore Cooper for a character in his novel 'The Last of the Mohicans' (1826). In some cases it may be a short form of CORDULA, CORINNA or other names beginning with a similar sound.


Means cross in Spanish or Portuguese, referring to the cross of the crucifixion.


GENDER: Feminine
USAGE: English
Meaning & History

Simply from the English word for the white flower 雏菊 (花), ultimately derived from Old English dægeseage meaning day eye ``. It was first used as a given name in the 19th century, at the same time many other plant and flower names were coined.


Medieval diminutive of RICHARD. The change in the initial consonant is said to have been caused by the way the trilled Norman R was pronounced by the English.


From the Gaelic name Domhnall which means ruler of the world, composed of the old Celtic elements dumno world and val rule. This was the name of two 9th-century kings of the Scots and Picts. It has traditionally been very popular in Scotland, and during the 20th century it became common in the rest of the English-speaking world. This is the name of one of Walt Disney's most popular cartoon characters, Donald Duck 唐老鸭. It was also borne by Australian cricket player Donald Bradman (1908-2001).


From the Late Latin name Donatus meaning given. Several early saints had this name. The name was also borne by two Renaissance masters: the sculptor Donato di Niccolo di Bette Bardi (also known as Donatello), and the architect Donato Bramante.


Anglicized form of the Scottish surname Dubhghlas, meaning dark river from Gaelic dubh dark and glais water, river. Douglas was originally a river name, which then became a Scottish clan name (belonging to a powerful line of Scottish earls). It has been used as a given name since the 16th century.


From the noble title duke, which was originally derived from Latin dux leader.


Means rich guard 总管/管家, derived from the Old English elements ead wealth, fortune and weard guard. Saint Edward the Confessor was the king of England shortly before the Norman conquest. He was known as a just ruler, and because of his popularity this name remained in use after the conquest when most other Old English names were replaced by Norman ones. The 13th-century king Henry III named his son and successor after the saint, and seven subsequent kings of England were also named Edward. This is one of the few Old English names to be used throughout Europe (in various spellings).


From the Old Norse name Eiríkr, derived from the elements ei ever, always and ríkr ruler. A notable bearer was Eiríkr inn Rauda (Eric the Red in English), a 10th-century navigator and explorer who discovered Greenland. This was also the name of several early kings of Sweden, Denmark and Norway.

This common Norse name was first brought to England by Danish settlers during the Anglo-Saxon period. It was not popular in England in the Middle Ages, but it was revived in the 19th century, in part due to the children's novel Eric, or Little by Little (1858) by Frederic William Farrar.


From an English surname which was derived from the given name AVELINE. In the 17th century when it was first used as a given name it was more common for boys, but it is now regarded as mainly feminine due to association with the related name Evelina.


From a German surname which was derived from the Latin name FAUSTUS. This is the name of a character in German legends about a man who makes a deal with the devil. He is believed to be based on the character of Dr. Johann Faust (1480-1540). His story was adapted by writers such as Christopher Marlowe and Goethe.


Roman cognomen meaning auspicious, lucky in Latin. It was also occasionally used as a praenomen, or given name. This was the name of several early Christian saints.

、Florence/Florrie/Flossie/Floella/Flo/Floor, Floris (Dutch), Fiorenza, Fiorenzo (Italian), Florentia, Florentius (Late Roman), Florencio (Portuguese), Florencia, Florencio (Spanish) /佛罗伦萨

Meaning & History
From the Latin name Florentius or the feminine form Florentia, which were derived from florens prosperous, flourishing 華/花. Florentius was borne by many early Christian saints, and it was occasionally used in their honour through the Middle Ages. In modern times it is mostly feminine.

The name can also be given in reference to the city in Italy, as in the case of Florence Nightingale (1820-1910). She was a nurse in British hospitals during the Crimean War and is usually considered the founder of modern nursing.


From an English surname which was derived from Middle English frankelin freeman. A famous bearer of the surname was Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), an American statesman, inventor, scientist and philosopher. The name has commonly been given in his honour in the United States. It also received a boost during the term of American president Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945).


English form of a Germanic name meaning "peaceful ruler", derived from frid "peace" and ric "ruler, power". This name has long been common in continental Germanic-speaking regions, being borne by rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, Germany, Austria, Scandinavia, and Prussia. Notables among these rulers include the 12th-century Holy Roman Emperor and crusader Frederick I Barbarossa, the 13th-century emperor and patron of the arts Frederick II, and the 18th-century Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great.

The Normans brought the name to England in the 11th century but it quickly died out. It was reintroduced by the German House of Hanover when they inherited the British throne in the 18th century. A famous bearer was Frederick Douglass (1818-1895), an American ex-slave who became a leading advocate of abolition.


Means wand elf in Old Norse, from the elements gandr wand, staff, cane and álfr elf 精靈. This name belongs to a dwarf in the 'Völuspá', a 13th-century Scandinavian manuscript which forms part of the Poetic Edda. The author J. R. R. Tolkien borrowed the name for a wizard in his novels 'The Hobbit' (1937) and 'The Lord of the Rings' (1954).


From the English word grace, which ultimately derives from Latin gratia 慧 / 憐 /仁 /雅. This was one of the virtue names created in the 17th century by the Puritans. The actress Grace Kelly (1929-1982) was a famous bearer.


From a Scottish surname, originally derived from the English place name Grantham, which probably meant gravelly homestead in Old English. The surname was first taken to Scotland in the 12th century by the Norman baron William de Graham. A famous bearer was Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), the Scottish-Canadian-American inventor who devised the telephone.


From the Norman French form of the Welsh name Gwenhwyfar, derived from the elements gwen meaning "fair, white" and sebara meaning "phantom, magical being". In Arthurian legend she was the beautiful wife of King Arthur. According to the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth, she was seduced by Mordred before the battle of Camlann, which led to the deaths of both Mordred and Arthur. According to the 12th-century French poet Chrétien de Troyes, she engaged in an adulterous affair with Sir Lancelot.

The Cornish form of this name, Jennifer, has become popular in the English-speaking world.


French form of GUSTAV. This name was borne by the French artist Gustave Doré (1832-1883).

Possibly means staff of the Goths, derived from the Old Norse elements Gautr "Goth" and stafr "staff". However, the root name Gautstafr is not well attested in the Old Norse period. Alternatively, it might be derived from the Slavic name GOSTISLAV. This name has been borne by six kings of Sweden, including the 16th-century Gustav I Vasa.


From the English word hazel for the tree or the light brown colour 榛樹, derived ultimately from Old English hæsel. It was coined as a given name in the 19th century.


Meaning & History
From the Germanic name Heimirich which meant home ruler 家主/王, composed of the elements heim home and ric "power, ruler". It was later commonly spelled Heinrich, with the spelling altered due to the influence of other Germanic names like Haganrich, in which the first element is hagan "enclosure".

REFER: Henry


From the Greek name Ιασων (Iason), which was derived from Greek ιασθαι (iasthai) to heal. In Greek mythology Jason was the leader of the Argonauts. After his uncle Pelias overthrew his father as king of Iolcos, Jason went in search of the Golden Fleece in order to win back the throne. During his journeys he married the sorceress Medea, who helped him gain the fleece and kill his uncle, but who later turned against him when he fell in love with another woman.

This name also appears in the New Testament, belonging to man who sheltered Paul and Silas. In his case, it may represent a Hellenized form of a Hebrew name. It was not used in England until after the Protestant Reformation.


English form of the Late Latin name Iacomus which was derived from Ιακωβος (Iakobos), the New Testament Greek form of the Hebrew name Ya'aqov (see JACOB). This was the name of two apostles in the New Testament. The first was Saint James the Greater, the apostle John's brother, who was beheaded under Herod Agrippa in the Book of Acts. The second was James the Lesser, son of Alphaeus. Another James (known as James the Just) is also mentioned in the Bible as being the brother of Jesus.

Since the 13th century this form of the name has been used in England, though it became more common in Scotland where it was borne by several kings. In the 17th century the Scottish king James VI inherited the English throne, becoming the first ruler of all Britain, and the name grew much more popular. Famous bearers include the explorer Captain James Cook (1728-1779), the inventor James Watt (1736-1819), and the novelist and poet James Joyce (1882-1941). This name has also been borne by six American presidents. A notable fictional bearer is the British spy James Bond, created by author Ian Fleming.


From the Latin Iacobus, which was from the Greek Ιακωβος (Iakobos), which was from the Hebrew name יַעֲקֹב (Ya'aqov). In the Old Testament, Jacob (later called Israel) is the son of Isaac and Rebecca and the father of the twelve founders of the twelve tribes of Israel. He was born holding his twin brother Esau's heel, and his name is explained as meaning holder of the heel or supplanter. Other theories claim that it is in fact derived from a hypothetical name like יַעֲקֹבְאֵל (Ya'aqov'el) meaning may God protect.

The English names Jacob and James derive from the same source, with James coming from Latin Iacomus, a later variant of Iacobus. Unlike English, many languages do not have separate spellings for the two names.

In England, Jacob was mainly regarded as a Jewish name during the Middle Ages, though the variant James was used among Christians. Jacob came into general use as a Christian name after the Protestant Reformation. A famous bearer was Jacob Grimm (1785-1863), the German linguist and writer who was, with his brother Wilhelm, the author of 'Grimm's Fairy Tales'.


From a Cornish form of the Welsh name Gwenhwyfar (see GUINEVERE). This name has only been common outside of Cornwall since the beginning of the 20th century, after it was featured in George Bernard Shaw's play 'The Doctor's Dilemma' (1906).


Diminutive of KATHERINE, often used independently. It has been used in England since the Middle Ages. This was the name of the woman who Petruchio marries and tries to tame in Shakespeare's comedy 'Taming of the Shrew' (1593). A famous bearer is the British actress Kate Winslet (1975-).


From the Greek name Αικατερινη (Aikaterine). The etymology is debated: it could derive from the earlier Greek name ‘Εκατερινη (Hekaterine), which came from ‘εκατερος (hekateros) "each of the two"; it could derive from the name of the goddess HECATE; it could be related to Greek αικια (aikia) "torture"; or it could be from a Coptic name meaning "my consecration of your name". In the early Christian era it became associated with Greek καθαρος (katharos) "pure", and the Latin spelling was changed from Katerina to Katharina to reflect this.

The name was borne by a semi-legendary 4th-century saint and martyr from Alexandria who was tortured on a spiked wheel. The saint was initially venerated in Syria, and returning crusaders introduced the name to Western Europe. It has been common in England since the 12th century in many different spellings, with Katherine and Catherine becoming standard in the later Middle Ages.

Famous bearers of the name include Catherine of Siena, a 14th-century mystic, and Catherine de' Medici, a 16th-century French queen. It was also borne by three of Henry VIII's wives, including Katherine of Aragon, and by two empresses of Russia, including Catherine the Great.


From the name of a Scottish river, perhaps meaning narrow water. As a title it was borne by the Irish-Scottish physicist William Thomson, Lord Kelvin (1824-1907), who acquired his title from the river.


Anglicized form of the Irish name Caoimhín, derived from the older Irish Cóemgein, composed of the Old Irish elements cóem kind, gentle, handsome and gein birth. Saint Caoimhín established a monastery in Glendalough, Ireland in the 6th century and is the patron saint of Dublin. It became popular in the English-speaking world outside of Ireland in the 20th century.


From a title meaning king, ruler. Its origin is Mongolian, though the word has been transmitted into many other languages.


French: topographic name for someone who lived near a boundary mark, Old French fitte (Late Latin fixta petra ‘fixed stone’, from the past participle of figere ‘to fix or fasten’), or habitational name from any of several places in western France named with this word.

Source: Dictionary of American Family Names ©2013, Oxford University Press


Italian, Spanish and Portuguese form of LEONARD. A notable bearer was Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), an Italian artist and scientist of the Renaissance. He is also known as the inventor of several contraptions, including flying machines, as well as the painter of the 'Mona Lisa'. Another famous bearer was Leonardo Fibonacci, a 13th-century Italian mathematician. A more recent bearer is American actor Leonardo DiCaprio (1974-).


Means brave lion, derived from the Germanic elements levon lion and hard brave, hardy. This was the name of a 5th-century Frankish saint who is the patron of prisoners and horses. The Normans brought this name to England, though it did not become common there until the 19th century.


From the name of the flower 百合花, a symbol of purity /潔/雅. The word is ultimately derived from Latin lilium 百合花.


From the Greek name Λινος (Linos) meaning flax. In Greek legend he was the son of the god Apollo, who accidentally killed him in a contest. Another son of Apollo by this name was the music teacher of Herakles. The name was also borne by the second pope, serving after Saint Peter in the 1st century. In modern times it was the name of a character in Charles Schulz's comic strip 'Peanuts'.


Feminine form of LUCIUS. Saint Lucia was a 4th-century martyr from Syracuse. She was said to have had her eyes gouged out, and thus is the patron saint of the blind. She was widely revered in the Middle Ages, and her name has been used throughout Christian Europe (in various spellings). It has been used in the England since the 12th century, usually in the spellings Lucy or Luce.


Roman praenomen, or given name, which was derived from Latin lux light 光/亮/明. This was the most popular of the praenomina. Two Etruscan kings of early Rome had this name as well as several prominent later Romans, including Lucius Annaeus Seneca (known simply as Seneca), a statesman, philosopher, orator and tragedian. The name is mentioned briefly in the New Testament belonging to a Christian in Antioch. It was also borne by three popes, including the 3rd-century Saint Lucius. Despite this, the name was not regularly used in the Christian world until after the Renaissance.


From the Germanic name Chlodovech, which was composed of the elements hlud famous and wig war, battle. This was the name of three Merovingian kings of the Franks (though their names are usually spelled in the Latinized form Clovis) as well as several Carolingian kings and Holy Roman Emperors (names often spelled in the French form Louis). Other famous bearers include the German composer Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) and the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), who contributed to logic and the philosophy of language.


USAGE: English, Biblical
PRONOUNCED: LOOK (English) [key]
Meaning & History
English form of the Greek name Λουκας (Loukas) which meant from Lucania, Lucania being a region in southern Italy (of uncertain meaning). Saint Luke was a doctor who travelled in the company of Saint Paul. According to tradition, he was the author of the third Gospel and Acts in the New Testament. Due to his renown, the name became common in the Christian world (in various spellings). As an English name, Luke has been in use since the 12th century. A famous fictional bearer was the hero Luke Skywalker from the 'Star Wars' movies.


From a title of the Virgin Mary meaning my lady in Italian. A famous bearer of the name is American singer Madonna Ciccone (1958-), known simply as Madonna.


Derived from Latin Margarita, which was from Greek μαργαριτης (margarites) meaning pearl, probably ultimately a borrowing from Sanskrit मञ्यरी (manyari). Saint Margaret, the patron of expectant mothers, was martyred at Antioch in the 4th century. Later legends told of her escape from a dragon, with which she was often depicted in medieval art. The saint was popular during the Middle Ages, and her name has been widely used in the Christian world.

Other saints by this name include a queen of Scotland and a princess of Hungary. It was also borne by Queen Margaret I of Denmark, who united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway in the 14th century. Famous literary bearers include American writer Margaret Mitchell (1900-1949), the author of 'Gone with the Wind', and Canadian writer Margaret Atwood (1939-).


Italian and Spanish form of MARIUS. Famous bearers include American race car driver Mario Andretti (1940-) and Canadian hockey player Mario Lemieux (1965-).


Roman family name which was derived either from MARS, the name of the Roman god of War, or else from the Latin root mas, maris meaning male. Gaius Marius was a famous Roman consul of the 2nd century BC. Since the start of the Christian era, it has occasionally been used as a masculine form of MARIA.


Roman praenomen, or given name, which was probably derived from the name of the Roman god MARS 戰神. This was among the most popular of the Roman praenomina. Famous bearers include Marcus Tullius Cicero (known simply as Cicero), a 1st-century BC statesman and orator, Marcus Antonius (known as Mark Antony), a 1st-century BC politician, and Marcus Aurelius, a notable 2nd-century emperor. This was also the name of a pope of the 4th century. This spelling has occasionally been used in the English-speaking world, though the traditional English form Mark has been more common.


From the Hebrew name מִיכָאֵל (Mikha'el) meaning who is like God?. This is a rhetorical question, implying no person is like God. Michael is one of the seven archangels in Hebrew tradition and the only one identified as an archangel in the Bible. In the Book of Revelation in the New Testament he is portrayed as the leader of heaven's armies, and thus is considered the patron saint of soldiers.

The popularity of the saint led to the name being used by nine Byzantine emperors, including Michael VIII Palaeologus who restored the empire in the 13th century. It has been common in Western Europe since the Middle Ages, and in England since the 12th century. It has been borne (in various spellings) by rulers of Russia (spelled Михаил), Romania (Mihai), Poland (Michał), and Portugal (Miguel). Other bearers of this name include the British chemist/physicist Michael Faraday (1791-1867), musician Michael Jackson (1958-2009), and basketball player Michael Jordan (1963-)


From Italian, meaning "MICHAEL angel", referring to the archangel Michael. The Renaissance painter and sculptor Michelangelo Buonarroti, from Florence, was the man who created such great works of art as the statue of David and the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. This name was also borne by the Baroque artist Michelangelo Merisi, better known as Caravaggio.


Means praiseworthy, derived from Arabicحمد (hamid) to praise. This was the name of the prophet who founded the Islamic religion in the 7th century. According to Muslim belief, at age 40 Muhammad was visited by the angel Gabriel, who provided him with the first verses of the Qur'an. Approximately 20 years later he conquered Mecca, the city of his birth, and his followers controlled most of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of his death in 632.

Since the prophet's time his name has been very popular in the Muslim world. It was borne by several Abbasid caliphs and six sultans of the Ottoman Empire (though their names are usually given in the Turkish spelling Mehmet). It was also borne by Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, a 9th-century Persian mathematician and scientist who devised algebra. Other famous bearers include the founder of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) and the American boxer Muhammad Ali (1942-2016).


From the Greek name Νικολαος (Nikolaos) which meant victory of the people 凱(旋) / 王師 (?) from Greek νικη (nike) victory and λαος (laos) people. Saint Nicholas was a 4th-century bishop from Anatolia who, according to legend, saved the daughters of a poor man from lives of prostitution. He is the patron saint of children, sailors and merchants, as well as Greece and Russia. He formed the basis for the figure known as Santa Claus (created in the 19th century from Dutch Sinterklaas), the bringer of Christmas presents.

Due to the renown of the saint, this name has been widely used in the Christian world. It has been common in England since the 12th century, though it became a bit less popular after the Protestant Reformation. The name has been borne by five popes and two czars of Russia.


Means pleasantness in Hebrew. A famous bearer is Noam Chomsky (1928-), an American linguist and philosopher.


From the Latin name Patricius, which meant nobleman. This name was adopted in the 5th-century by Saint Patrick, whose birth name was Sucat. He was a Romanized Briton who was captured and enslaved in his youth by Irish raiders. After six years of servitude he escaped home, but he eventually became a bishop and went back to Ireland as a missionary. He is traditionally credited with Christianizing the island, and is regarded as Ireland's patron saint.

In England and elsewhere in Europe during the Middle Ages this name was used in honour of the saint. However, it was not generally given in Ireland before the 17th century because it was considered too sacred for everyday use. It has since become very common there.


From the Roman family name Paulus, which meant small or humble in Latin. Saint Paul was an important leader of the early Christian church, his story told in Acts in the New Testament. His original Hebrew name was Saul. Most of the epistles in the New Testament were authored by him.

Due to the renown of Saint Paul the name became common among early Christians. It was borne by a number of other early saints and six popes. In England it was relatively rare during the Middle Ages, but became more frequent beginning in the 17th century. A notable bearer was the American Revolutionary War figure Paul Revere (1735-1818), who warned of the advance of the British army. Famous bearers in the art world include the French impressionists Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) and Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), and the Swiss expressionist Paul Klee (1879-1940). It is borne by British musician Paul McCartney (1942-). This is also the name of the legendary American lumberjack Paul Bunyan.


Feminine form of Paulus (see PAUL). This was the name of a 4th-century Roman saint who was a companion of Saint Jerome.


Offspring, Descendant of Philip. Philip itself means Horse-Lover 愛馬士.


From an Irish surname, an Anglicized form of Ó Cuinn meaning descendant of <b>CONN</b>.


Italian form of RAPHAEL.


רָפָאֵל, רְפָאֵל (Ancient Hebrew), Ραφαηλ (Ancient Greek)

From the Hebrew name רָפָאֵל (Rafa'el) which meant God has healed. In Hebrew tradition Raphael was the name of one of the seven archangels. He appears in the Old Testament in the Book of Tobit, where it is told how he aided Tobias. This name has never been common in the English-speaking world, though it has been well-used elsewhere in Europe. A famous bearer was the 16th-century Renaissance master Raphael (usually known simply as Raphael).


Means brave power, derived from the Germanic elements ric power, rule and hard brave, hardy. The Normans introduced this name to Britain, and it has been very common there since that time. It was borne by three kings of England including Richard I the Lionheart, leader of the Third Crusade in the 12th century. Famous bearers include two German opera composers, Richard Wagner (1813-1883) and Richard Strauss (1864-1949), as well as British explorer Sir Richard Burton (1821-1890) and American musician Little Richard (1932-).


Short form of ALESSANDRA ``. It was introduced to the English-speaking world by author George Meredith, who used it for the heroine in his novel 'Emilia in England' (1864) and the reissued version 'Sandra Belloni' (1887). A famous bearer is American actress Sandra Bullock (1964-).


Means "Saint James", derived from Spanish santo saint combined with Yago, an old Spanish form of JAMES, the patron saint of Spain. Cities in Chile and Spain bear this name.


Italian, Spanish and Portuguese form of SILVIUS.


Derived from Latin silva wood, forest. This was the family name of several of the legendary kings of Alba Longa. It was also the name of an early saint martyred in Alexandria.


Derived from the Old Norse name Steinn meaning stone 石頭 shí tou.


VARIANT: Steven (English)
DIMINUTIVES: Ste, Steph, Steve, Stevie (English)

From the Greek name Στεφανος (Stephanos) meaning crown, more precisely that which surrounds. Saint Stephen was a deacon who was stoned to death, as told in Acts in the New Testament. He is regarded as the first Christian martyr. Due to him, the name became common in the Christian world. It was popularized in England by the Normans.

This was the name of kings of England, Serbia, and Poland, as well as ten popes. It was also borne by the first Christian king of Hungary (10th century), who is regarded as the patron saint of that country. More recent bearers include British physicist Stephen Hawking (1942-) and the American author Stephen King (1947-).


Diminutive of EDWARD or THEODORE.


Greek form of the Aramaic name תָּאוֹמָא (Ta'oma') which meant twin 雙子座/複. In the New Testament this is the name of the apostle who initially doubts the resurrected Jesus. According to tradition he was martyred in India. Due to his renown, the name came into general use in the Christian world.

In England the name was introduced by the Normans and became very popular due to Saint Thomas Becket, a 12th-century archbishop of Canterbury and martyr. Another notable saint by this name was the 13th-century Italian philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas, who is regarded as a Doctor of the Church. Other famous bearers include philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), American president Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), novelist Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), and inventor Thomas Edison (1847-1931).


From a Roman name which meant "of Thracia". Thracia was a region in southeast Europe, now divided between Greece and Turkey.


From the Old Norse name Þórvaldr, which meant "Thor's ruler" from the name of the Norse god Þórr (see THOR) combined with valdr "ruler".


From an English surname which was taken from a Norman French place name meaning "domain belonging to THRACIUS". Charles Dickens used it for a male character in his novel 'The Pickwick Papers' (1837). It was later popularized as a feminine name by the main character Tracy Lord in the movie 'The Philadelphia Story' (1940). This name is also sometimes used as a diminutive of THERESA.


Latin alteration of BERENICE, the spelling influenced by the ecclesiastical Latin phrase vera icon meaning true image. This was the name of a legendary saint who wiped Jesus' face with a towel and then found his image imprinted upon it. Due to popular stories about her, the name was occasionally used in the Christian world in the Middle Ages. It was borne by the 17th-century Italian saint and mystic Veronica Giuliani. As an English name, it was not common until the 19th century, when it was imported from France and Scotland.


From the English word violet for the purple flower 紫羅蘭, ultimately derived from Latin viola. It was common in Scotland from the 16th century, and it came into general use as an English given name during the 19th century.


From the Latin name Vivianus which was derived from Latin vivus alive . Saint Vivian was a French bishop who provided protection during the Visigoth invasion of the 5th century. It has been occasionally used as an English (masculine) name since the Middle Ages. In modern times it is also used as a feminine name, in which case it is either an Anglicized form of BÉBINN or a variant of VIVIEN (2).


From a Germanic name meaning "ruler of the army", composed of the elements wald "rule" and hari "army". The Normans brought it to England, where it replaced the Old English cognate Wealdhere. A famous bearer of the name was Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), a Scottish novelist who wrote 'Ivanhoe' and other notable works.


1、What are the meanings of common English names?


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