文学人,好看的女人和女男士你钟爱哪款

日期:2019-05-13编辑作者:35222.com

www.35222.com 1女神和女汉子你偏爱哪款www.35222.com 2女神和女汉子你偏爱哪款www.35222.com 3女神和女汉子你偏爱哪款www.35222.com 4女神和女汉子你偏爱哪款

2017-03-15  常远托福

A distorted sex ratio is playing havoc with marriage in China

自从贾玲参与演出春晚小品《喜乐街》,关于女神与女汉子的争议便不绝于耳。如果我们将女人用英文来分类下,你会发现类别也不少!

微信公众号:changyuantoefl

A shortage of brides is bending Chinese society out of shape

Girly girl

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萌妹子

“剩女”(leftover women)一词在咱们国家第一次出现大概是在2007年。当年,“剩女”首次出现在教育部(the Ministry of Education)的正式文件中。2010年,中华妇女联合会(All-China Women's Federation)在其官方报告中也使用了“剩女”这个词。从此,”剩女”一词便在网络上像病毒一样传播开来(go viral),一发不可收拾……

Nov 23rd 2017

A girly girl is someone who whole-heartedly embraces her femininity, without sacrificing her personality or strength. She cares about her behavior, style and appearance, but is never self-centered or mean. She is someone other girls look up to and want to be friends with. Being a girly girl is a personal choice, and no one should pressure you to act in any way you are uncomfortable; however, if this is the attitude and look that you are going for, all you need to do is cultivate the right behavior and appearance。

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IN PI VILLAGE, on the outskirts of Beijing, a man in his late 50s who gives his name as Ren is mixing cement for a new apartment building. As he shovels, he gives an account of bride-price inflation. When he married, his parents gave his wife 800 yuan, which seemed like a lot. Twelve years ago one of Mr Ren’s sons married. His bride got 8,000 yuan. Recently another son married, and Mr Ren had to stump up100,000 yuan ($15,000). He is likely to be mixing cement well into his 60s.

萌妹子是全身心的享受她的女性气质,不会牺牲掉个人性格特色或优势。她在乎个人的行为,风格和外在形象,但从不以自我为中心或者刻薄待人。她是其它女孩所仰视且想要成为朋友的人。作为萌妹子纯属自然表露,没有任何强迫做作的感觉。但是,如果这是你所追求的态度和形象,你唯一需要做的就是培养熏陶这方面的行为和外在形象。

天天哪哪儿都能看到“剩女”这个词,那到底哪些人是“剩女”呢?其实,leftover women是个中国特色的词汇(a word with Chinese characteristics),“剩女”“的官方定义是指那些年龄超过27岁或30岁但仍未结婚女性。(’Leftover women’are generally referred to those women over the age of 27 or 30 who are still single.)

Like India, most of China is patrilocal: in theory, at least, a married woman moves into her husband’s home and looks after his parents. Also like India, China has a deep cultural preference for boys. But whereas India has dowries, China has bride prices. The groom’s parents, not the bride’s, are expected to pay for the wedding and give money and property to the couple. These bride prices have shot up, bending the country’s society and economy out of shape.

代表人物:美剧《吸血鬼日记》女主角(Nina Dobrev饰演)

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havoc: a situation in which there is much destruction or confusion

17岁的Elena Gilbert和她15岁的弟弟Jeremy至今仍惊魂未定,努力从四个月前那场夺走了他们双亲的车祸中恢复过来。Elena一直以来都是美丽、受欢迎的明星学生,和同学以及朋友们处的很融洽,却竭力在世人面前掩饰内心的悲痛。

想说,如果要按这个标准,那美帝岂不是也大把大把的“剩女”吗?

stump up: to pay(an amount of money) especially when you do not want to 

Tough girl

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和印度一样,中国有重男轻女的传统,嫁妆水涨船高,也使社会和经济畸形发展

女汉子

“剩女”听起来是个贬义词,但实际上这些个女人们往往能让男人感到汗颜……因为“剩女”最明显的三大特征是:

It would be better for us to know the translation of Chinese "nvhanzi". There are many versions. Macho girl? Tomboy? Masculine girl? Manly girl? Some Chinese even put a hyphen between "wo" and "man" to distinguish the difference between "nvhanzi" and woman. But the one which has been widely recognized by the public is "tough girl"。

高学历 事业有成(Highly-educated and Accomplished)

The cause, as Mr Ren explains, is a shortage of women. Without human intervention, about 105 boys will be born for every 100 girls: boys and men are slightly more likely to die, so by the time they reach reproductive age the number of men and women should be roughly equal. But many Chinese couples have tipped the scales. Driven partly by China’s now-abandoned one-child policy, they have used ultrasound scans to determine the sex of fetuses and then aborted some of the girls. By 2010 there were 119 boys under five years old for every 100 girls. Two demographers, John Bongaarts and Christophe Guilmoto, estimate that China is missing more than 60m women and girls.

Tough girl此词中文译为女汉子为佳。关于女汉子,英文有很多版本。Macho girl?Tomboy? Masculine girl? Manly girl?(类似于女爷们、假小子、偏男性化的女子等)有的中国人甚至在“wo”和“man”之间加连字符,以此区别女人和女汉子。但是广为人知的英文版还是“tough girl”。

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In the province of Shandong, in eastern China, the child sex ratio skewed early and drastically.It was highly unbalanced by 1990, and by 2010 had reached 123:100. Moreover, not all Shandong girls hang around awaiting marriage proposals from local boys.The province lies between Beijing and Shanghai, so it is easy for the province’s young women—said to be unusually tall and beautiful—to migrate to the great metropolises in search of work and boyfriends. The result is a severe shortage, and bride prices that are barmy even by Chinese standards.

代表人物:《破产姐妹》(2 Broke Girls)女主角Max(Kat Dennings饰)

思想进步 现代化 独立女性(Progressive, Modern and Independent)

In Zhongdenglou, a tiny village in western Shandong, 30-year-old Deng Zhikuan runs a grocery store. When he married, ten years ago, bride prices in the village were between 2,000 and 3,000 yuan. Now they run between 200,000 and 300,000 yuan, although Mr Deng hears that as much as 500,000 has been handed over (50,000 yuan would be a respectable annual salary thereabouts).

适应能力超强的时髦女孩Max一天打两份工,其中一份是在仿古风潮的威廉斯堡饭店当夜间服务员。

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ultrasound: a method of producing images of the inside of the body by using a machine that produces sound waves which are too high to be heard

Spinster

择偶标准很高(The one with very high standards)。

fetus: a human being or animal in the later stages of development before it is born

老女人

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中国男孩和女孩在没有人工干预下的比例是105:100,而且男孩死亡率比较高,到他们结婚的年龄时,这个比例刚刚好是平衡的。但是由于中国国情,父母用B超来鉴定孩子性别,导致男女比例119:100。 在山东省,这个比例则更加严峻,达到123:100,加上当地女孩不一定嫁给本省人,会使山东男孩更加难找老婆

A spinster is an unmarried woman who is past the usual age for marrying and is considered unlikely to marry. An 18-year-old single woman would not be considered a spinster in contemporary language, but a single, 40-year-old woman may be considered a spinster. The term is synonymous with "old maid". Several dictionaries flag it as a derogatory term。

既然都这么优秀,那“剩女”为什么会出现呢?

www.35222.com,Past it at 25

老女人指的是已经过了该结婚的年龄却还未结婚,而且不太容易嫁的出去的未婚女子。在现代语言中一个18岁的单身女性是不会被称为老女人的,但是单身40的女人可能会被称为老女人。这个词与“老处女”同义。许多字典认为它带有贬损侮辱的意思。

“重男轻女”这个词不陌生吧?预计截止到2020年,中国适婚男性人口将超出适婚女性人口3000万!3000万啊!这么多光棍儿(bare branches)将会找不到女朋友娶不到媳妇儿!

Other villagers give similar figures. It is a buyer’s market, complains Qiang Lizhi, a newly married man who runs a café nearby. A 47-year-old man, Deng Xinling, says that men are now considered shopworn if they are unmarried at 25. By contrast, no woman is thought too old to marry; even widows have no difficulty in finding husbands.

代表人物:由于此词带有侮辱性,暂不举例。

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China’s growing sex imbalance is driving boys’ parents to desperate lengths. Some add another storey to their houses, not because they need the space but because a woman might be impressed. They give money to their sons to buy gold jewellery and pay for extravagant wedding photo shoots. They start saving early, then go into debt. China has a sky-high household saving rate: couples squirrel away 38% of disposable income, compared with 10% in notoriously frugal Germany. Two academics, Shang-Jin Wei and Xiaobo Zhang, estimate that half the increase in China’s saving rate between 1990 and 2007 can be attributed to the rising cost of marriage in a society with too many men.

Leftover women

政府怎么可能允许这么可怕的事情出现呢?所以官方媒体(official media)一直在通过有意的宣传队适婚girl们试压。

shopworn: faded or damaged from being in a shop or store for too long

剩女

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现在是女方买方市场,供不应求! 父母们就焦虑起来了,提前为儿子准备彩礼钱,加盖家里的楼房,不是为了住而是为了让儿子好求偶,这个也是醉了

"Leftover women" are generally referred to those women over the age of 27 or 30 who are still single. Usually they are well-educated, have a good salary and are professionally successful. According to statistics, the number of "leftover women" in Beijing has exceeded 800,000.(They have another name, 3S lady: single, seventies, stuck, which refers to an increasing group of modern urban women with three highs, including high education level, high income, and high IQ failing to find the Mr. Right in proper age and gradually become elder young women, is announced as one of the 171 new words in Chinese by Ministry of Education。)

这些所谓的“剩女”们有些感到压力山大(be stressing out about the fact)。

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“剩女”泛指年龄超过27或30岁的单身女性。通常她们都是受过良好教育,拿着优厚的薪水并且事业成功的女性。根据统计,北京剩女数量已经超过80万。(她们还有另外一个称号,3S女士:单身,70后,无奈,指的是逐步壮大的一群现代女性团体,她们拥有高学历,高收入,高智商,却没有在合适的年龄找到自己的真命天子最终渐渐变成大龄剩女,教育部收录其为中国171个新词之一。)

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Some fear that worse is to come. The unmarried male population is concentrated both geographically and socially. China’s women are taking advantage of their scarcity value to marry men from wealthier backgrounds, leaving many poor, illiterate rural men on the shelf (see chart). In a country where respectable adulthood is tied to marriage, the outcome could be a large pariah population and an epidemic of prostitution, abduction and organised crime in the countryside.

代表人物:《BJ单身日记》里的布里奇特·琼斯

有些则比较洒脱对单身生活欣然接受(similarly embrace the single lifestyle)。

But if rural China were heading for social Armageddon, there ought to be some sign of it already.There is not. The inhabitants of Zhongdenglou tell stories about brides being imported from other countries, especially Vietnam—but these stories turn out to come from the news media. They seem to view single men with pity and scorn rather than alarm—“people will laugh,” says Mr Qiang. Understandably, many unmarried men disappear, migrating to jobs in the cities in order to build up their savings. By the time they give up on marriage, in their 40s, they are too old to cause much trouble.

32岁的布里奇特·琼斯(蕾妮·齐维格)是一位单身女子,家住在伦敦西区,一天到晚做着电视公司研究员那份平淡无奇的工作。她没什么野心和抱负,唯一的一点点愿望就是能减轻体重以及寻找到一份真正的爱情,可这些对她来说依然是那么遥不可及。

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pariah: a person who is hated and rejected by other people

Cougar

也有人甚至为此与父母吵翻了脸(turnon their parents)。

abduct: to take someone away from a place by force

酷格格,非洲狮

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abductee

A woman, usually in her late 30s or early 40s, who has an interest in men much younger than her. Cougars are gaining popularity as young men are excited by a more experienced woman。

也许你和我一样感到好奇,为何从现实情况来看男性人数远远超过女性,“剩男”现象普遍却为何偏偏“剩女”一词被摆在台面儿上泛滥?这都是根植于我们骨子里的性别歧视(gender discrimination)在作祟。

abduction

处于三四十岁之间并对比自己年轻许多的男性感兴趣。由于年轻男性对更加成熟的女性很感兴趣,所以酷格格变得越来越受欢迎。

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abductor

代表人物:《熟女镇》(Cougar Town)主演柯特妮·考克斯(她曾在《老友记》中出演莫妮卡)

从现实来讲,男性的人数超过女性3000多万,“剩男”现象普遍。但为什么偏偏”剩女”一词在媒体上泛滥?这是植根于我们骨子里的性别歧视在作祟。男性应该给予女性更多的尊重,女性自身也应该解放思想、追逐自己的梦想。

男女不平衡导致优胜略汰,女孩倾向于选择和家庭背景好,受过良好教育的男孩,留下那些贫困的未接受良好教育的单身男性,增加犯罪率

Jules Cobb是一个事业成功的熟女,职场打拼多年早已过了跟热辣少女抢男人的年纪,但偏偏走了霉运。40岁的她刚刚离婚,拉扯着一个青春期的儿子。生活突然没了男人,日子过得毕竟有点消沉。偏偏邻居Grayson Ellis又是那种花花公子哥,天天辣妹美女左拥右抱,还收了Jules儿子为徒,在谈情说爱上指点一番。

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(来源:沪江英语 )

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Perhaps the most likely outcome is that China will endure a painful, decades-long marriage squeeze before the problem solves itself. Silly bride prices are an economic signal to which families are already responding. Lihong Shi, an anthropologist at CaseWestern Reserve University in America, says that many rural Chinese families have already come to view sons more as economic burdens than as security for their old age. If one believes Chinese statistics, the sex ratio at birth has fallen from a peak of 121 boys to 100 girls in 2004 to 114:100 in 2015.

**常远老师“每日一文”奉上**

Besides, as China becomes more mobile, patrilocal customs are breaking down. Married couples often live far from their aged parents and support them by sending money home.It turns out that daughters can look after their parents just as well as sons—and, according to Ms Shi, are thought to be better at the daily practicalities. Couples who failed to produce a boy 20 or 30 years ago, and endured the mockery of their neighbours, are having the last laugh.

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现在很多家庭都把儿子看作是经济负担,而不是养老的保障(有没有感觉父母在无私奉献地同时也有点自私的感觉)

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Results

Lexile®Measure: 1100L - 1200L

Mean Sentence Length: 16.20

Mean Log Word Frequency: 3.26

Word Count: 972

这篇文章的蓝思值是在1100-1200L, 适合英语专业大二大三的水平学习,应该是经济学人里属于普通难度,英语专业八级第一篇阅读也差不多这个级别

使用kindle断断续续地读《经济学人》三年,发现从一开始磕磕碰碰到现在比较顺畅地读完,进步很大,推荐购买!点击这里可以去亚马逊官网购买~

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