美利坚联邦合众国教育部对STEM的疏解,女子数学

日期:2019-05-15编辑作者:35222.com

www.35222.com 1女子数学不及男之说从何而来?

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from http://www.ed.gov/stem

High school math teachers' ratings of their students reveal agender bias, according to an analysis of national surveydata。依据一项全国性考察数量的分析,高级中学数学教授对其学生的评说申明了其性别偏见。

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The United States has developed as a global leader, in large part, through the genius and hard work of its scientists, engineers, and innovators. In a world that’s becoming increasingly complex, where success is driven not only by what you know, but by what you can do with what you know, it’s more important than ever for our youth to be equipped with the knowledge and skills to solve tough problems, gather and evaluate evidence, and make sense of information. These are the types of skills that students learn by studying science, technology, engineering, and math—subjects collectively known as STEM.

Teachers tend to rate white girls' math abilities lower thanthose of white male students, even when the girls' grades and testscores are comparable to boys, according to a team of researcherswho analyzed data collected as part of the national 艾德ucationalLongitudinal Study of20十.此项调研是20拾年全美教育纵向斟酌的1有的,1组钻探职员对所搜聚的检察数据开始展览了深入分析,其深入分析结果彰显:教师往往感到女子的数学本事比男人的低,以至当女子们的实际业绩和考试分数可与男人正财也依然这么。

www.35222.com 3女生数学比不上男之说从何而来?

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"We find evidence of a consistent bias against white females,which although relatively small in magnitude, suggests thatteachers hold the belief that math is just easier for white malesthan it is for white females," write Catherine Riegle-Crumb andMelissa Humphries of the University of Texas at 奥斯汀 in the Aprilissue of the journal Gender &Society。“大家发掘有证据注解老师对女孩子一向存在着偏见,固然或许没那么严重,但仍可看到教授们坚信数学对于男人以来尤其轻易些,”得克萨斯高校奥斯汀分校的凯瑟琳里格尔·克Lamb和梅Lisa·汉弗莱斯在《性别与社会》十二月发行的期刊中如是写道。

High school math teachers' ratings of their students reveal a gender bias, according to an analysis of national survey data。根据壹项全国性调查数量的解析,高级中学数学助教对其学生的褒贬表明了其性别偏见。

Science is more than a school subject

Starting in 二〇〇四, the ELS began following a nationallyrepresentative cohort of high-school students, collectinginformation from students, parents, librarians and teachers. Moredata will be collected from the cohort this year, according to theU.S.A. National Center for EducationStatistics。从二零零三年始于,ELS(教育纵向切磋)开端追踪高中学生的全国代表性同期群组,从学生、家长[微博]、体育场地员和教师中收罗新闻。依据United States国家庭教育育总括中心的陈设,二〇一玖年将从同期生中募集越多的多少。

Teachers tend to rate white girls' math abilities lower than those of white male students, even when the girls' grades and test scores are comparable to boys, according to a team of researchers who analyzed data collected as part of the national 艾德ucational Longitudinal Study of 20十.此项调查是20拾年全美教育纵向商量的一有些,一组研究人口对所搜集的核查数量进行了深入分析,其解析结果呈现:教授往往认为女人的数学技巧比男子的低,甚至当女大家的成就和考试分数可与男士偏财也依然如此。

“[Science]“[Science] is more than a school subject, or the periodic table, or the properties of waves. It is an approach to the world, a critical  way to understand and explore and engage with the world, and then have the  capacity to change that world..."

"The bias teachers reveal against white female students mayvery well be something they are not consciously aware of, but it'susually subtle," said Riegle-Crumb in a news release issued by theuniversity. "But it's definitely present, per our researchfindings."“教授对女人表现出的偏见完全可能是他俩完全未有开采到的,但这种偏见平时是丰富神秘的,”里格尔·克拉姆在大学公布的1篇音信稿中说。 “依照大家的研究结果,这种景色自然存在。”

"We find evidence of a consistent bias against white females, which although relatively small in magnitude, suggests that teachers hold the belief that math is just easier for white males than it is for white females," write Catherine Riegle-Crumb and Melissa Humphries of the University of Texas at 奥斯汀 in the April issue of the journal Gender & Society。“大家开掘有凭据阐明老师对女人向来存在着偏见,就算也许没那么严重,但仍可看出教授们坚信数学对于男生以来尤为轻巧些,” 得克萨斯高校奥斯汀分校的凯瑟琳里格尔·克拉姆和梅Lisa·汉弗莱斯在《性别与社会》四月批发的期刊中如是写道。

— President Barack Obama, March 23, 2015

www.35222.com,ELS data showed most teachers rated the math abilities of maleand female minorities lower when their test scores and grades werelow, but this does not constitute a bias because reasonable datasupport the teachers' evaluations, according to theresearchers.ELS的数目还表明,当少数民族学生的考试成绩和分数低时,大许多教师职员和工人都会以为其数学本事较差,但凭借研商人口的眼光,这种不能够算是偏见,因为有创造的多少支撑老师的评估。

Starting in 2004, the ELS began following a nationally representative cohort of high-school students, collecting information from students, parents, librarians and teachers. More data will be collected from the cohort this year, according to the 美利坚联邦合众国 National Center for Education Statistics。从二〇〇三年始发,ELS(教育纵向切磋)开首追踪高级中学学生的举国代表性同期群组,从学生、家长[微博]、教室员和导师中搜聚音信。依照美国国家庭教育育总计中心的布置,二〇一九年将从同期生中搜聚更加多的多寡。

Yet today, few American students pursue expertise in STEM fields—and we have an inadequate pipeline of teachers skilled in those subjects. That’s why President Obama has set a priority of increasing the number of students and teachers who are proficient in these vital fields.

However, this does not mean that minority students are freefrom negative stereotypes, according to Riegle-Crumb. Previousresearch suggests race plays into teachers' expectations ofstudents。可是听新闻说里格尔·克Lamb的说教,那并不意味着少数民族学生就可以为此摆脱负面成见。以后研究注解种族分裂,会潜移默化了老师对学生的期望值。

"The bias teachers reveal against white female students may very well be something they are not consciously aware of, but it's usually subtle," said Riegle-Crumb in a news release issued by the university. "But it's definitely present, per our research findings."“教授对女子表现出的偏见完全或然是他俩完全未有开掘到的,但这种偏见平时是充裕神秘的,” 里格尔·克Lamb在大学发表的一篇新闻稿中说。 “依照大家的琢磨结果,这种情景自然存在。”

The need

All young people should be prepared to think deeply and to think well so that they have the chance to become the innovators, educators, researchers, and leaders who can solve the most pressing challenges facing our nation and our world, both today and tomorrow. But, right now, not enough of our youth have access to quality STEM learning opportunities and too few students see these disciplines as springboards for their careers.expand/collapse

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US needs STEM

For example, we know that only 81 percent of Asian-American high school students and 71 percent of white high school students attend high schools where the full range of math and science courses are offered (Algebra I, geometry, Algebra II, calculus, biology, chemistry, and physics). The access to these courses for American Indian, Native-Alaskan, black, and Hispanic high school students are significantly worse. Children’s race, zip code, or socioeconomic status should never determine their STEM fluency. We must give all children the opportunity to be college-ready and to thrive in a modern STEM economy.

We also know that only 16 percent of American high school seniors are proficient in math and interested in a STEM career. Even among those who do go on to pursue a college major in the STEM fields, only about half choose to work in a related career. The United States is falling behind internationally, ranking 29th in math and 22nd in science among industrialized nations. What’s more, a recent survey revealed that only 29 percent of Americans rated this country’s K-12 education in STEM subjects as above average or the best in the world. In our competitive global economy, this situation is unacceptable.

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ELS data showed most teachers rated the math abilities of male and female minorities lower when their test scores and grades were low, but this does not constitute a bias because reasonable data support the teachers' evaluations, according to the researchers.ELS的数量还标明,当少数民族学生的考试成绩和分数低时,大诸多先生都会认为其数学技巧较差,但基于商量职员的见解,这种不能够算是偏见,因为有合理性的多少支撑老师的评估。

The goals

President Obama has articulated a clear priority for STEM education: within a decade, American students must "move from the middle to the top of the pack in science and math." The Obama Administration also is working toward the goal of fairness between places, where an equitable distribution of quality STEM learning opportunities and talented teachers can ensure that all students have the chance to study and be inspired by science, technology, engineering, and math—and have the chance to reach their full potential.

Specifically, the President has called on the nation to develop, recruit, and retain 100,000 excellent STEM teachers over the next 10 years. He also has asked colleges and universities to graduate an additional 1 million students with STEM majors.

These improvements in STEM education will happen only if Hispanics, African-Americans, and other underrepresented groups in the STEM fields—including women, people with disabilities, and first-generation Americans—robustly engage and are supported in learning and teaching in these areas.

However, this does not mean that minority students are free from negative stereotypes, according to Riegle-Crumb. Previous research suggests race plays into teachers' expectations of students。可是根据里格尔·克Lamb的说教,那并不意味着少数民族学生就能够为此摆脱负面成见。今后探究表明种族分裂,会影响了名师对学员的期望值。

The plan

The Committee on STEM Education (CoSTEM), comprised of 13 agencies—including all of the mission-science agencies and the Department of Education—are facilitating a cohesive national strategy, with new and repurposed funds, to increase the impact of federal investments in five areas: 1.) improving STEM instruction in preschool through 12th grade; 2.) increasing and sustaining public and youth engagement with STEM; 3.) improving the STEM experience for undergraduate students; 4.) better serving groups historically underrepresented in STEM fields; and 5.) designing graduate education for tomorrow's STEM workforce.

Coordinated efforts to improve STEM education are outlined in the federal, 5-year Strategic Plan for STEM Education and concentrate on improving the delivery, impact, and visibility of STEM efforts. Additionally, the Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, and the Smithsonian Institution are leading efforts to improve outcomes for traditionally underrepresented groups.

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